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Visual Edge

  • Slant Board Paper Catch Removal and Replacement Instructions

    Visual Edge Slant Board Paper Catch Removal and Replacement Instructions

    slant board paper catch removal


    Drill with ¼” bit
    Flat head screwdriver
    Pliers (Needle Nose Preferred)


    1 Set of Instructions
    2 Round Head #8 x 3/8” Bolts
    2 Hexagonal #8 Nuts
    2 #8 Lockwashers


    1) On a level stable surface place the Slant Board face down. With the drill and ¼” bit carefully drill out the end of both rivet stems to just below the washer.
    2) With the pliers grab the outside of the washer and pull both washers off.
    3) Turn Slant Board over and gently pull the broken paper catch off.
    4) If there is some resistance removing the paper catch, turn the Slant Board back face down and with the pliers crimp the end of the rivet stem into a point and reattempt pulling the paper catch off.
    slant board leg removal


    1) Align the new metal paper catch with the holes on the front side of the Slant Board.
    2) Insert the bolts through the paper catch and Slant Board from the front side.
    3) From the backside of the Slant Board first place the lockwasher onto the bolt, then screw on the nut and tighten with your fingers.
    4) With the pliers firmly hold the nut on the backside of the Slant Board and with the screwdriver tighten the bolts from the front.
  • Visual Edge Slant Board Leg Removal and Replacement Instructions

    Visual Edge Slant Board Leg Removal and Replacement Instructionsslant board leg removal


    Drill with ¼” bit
    Flat head screwdriver
    Pliers (Needle Nose Preferred)


    1 Set of Instructions
    1 Plastic Leg Mounting Unit
    End Cap
    2 Round Head #8 x 5/8” Bolts
    2 Hexagonal #8 Nuts


    1) On a level stable surface place the Slant Board face down. With the drill and ¼” bit
    carefully drill out the end of both rivet stems to just below the washer.
    2) With the pliers grab the outside of the washer and pull both washers off.
    3) Grasp the plastic leg-mounting unit and gently pull away from the board.
    4) If there is some resistance removing the leg-mounting unit, with the pliers crimp the rivet stem into a point and reattempt pulling the leg-mounting unit off.


    1) Place the plastic leg into the slot on the leg-mounting unit with the spacing peg facing up.
    2) Turn the two pieces over, placing them on the backside of the Slant Board and align the new leg-mounting unit with the holes
    on the Slant Board. Hold in place with your hand.
    3) From the front side of the Slant Board insert the bolts through the holes in the board and leg-mounting unit.
    4)From the backside of the Slant Board screw on the nut and tighten with your fingers.
    5) With the pliers firmly hold the nut on the backside of the Slant Board and with the
    screwdriver tighten the bolts from the front.
    Slant Board Pens



  • How to Erase Old Marks off a Dry Erase Board

    Have you ever noticed that if you leave a message or drawing on a whiteboard for long enough, it isn’t so erasable anymore? While getting those stains off isn’t as easy as swiping a paper towel, there is a simple way to make your white board white again… Solutions have been listed in order of greatest likelihood for success. Note that there are three types of eraser boards: Every white, Melamine, and Porcelain. The primary difference is that one uses dry abrasion for erasure while the other requires a liquid such as alcohol. The following solutions are suggested for use with the type of board requiring a dry erase marker, not liquid.

    Best Method

    Try to avoid using any abrasive, since the surface will become microscopically rough and retain that ghost look next time after erasing and become harder to clean next time. Clean it with chemical similar to dry-cleaning fluid (such as hairspray or carpet spot remover), then condition the board for next time by rubbing a thin film of mineral oil (baby oil) over the surface.

    Use “Spot Shot” spray cleaner and a “Mr. Clean Eraser” sponge. Together they will not only take the ghost marker off, but any permanent marker accidentally used. Let the “Spot Shot” soak a while first.

    Easiest Method

    Get a dry erase marker (yes, you make marks to take marks away) and a dry eraser. The darker the color of marker you use, the easier the marks will disappear.

    Draw over what you want to erase (make sure you draw slowly to fill it in better).  This takes a few times in each spot and so it takes a while and wears out markers.

    Erase what you’ve written over as you normally would. Surprise! It erases. This is also a great method when you’ve accidentally used permanent marker instead of dry erase!

    how to remove dry erase marker

    MISSION Whiteboard Cleaner

    A spray cleaner that is very effective.  Used by school Janitors to clean classroom white boards.  or 800.733.1748

    EXPO White Board Care

    Very similar to wet wipes in a similar container.  These work great and seem to be the best for red marker.

    Hand Sanitizer Method

    Any cheap brand of hand sanitizer (Purrell, Germ X, etc) works great on any dry erase surface.

    Hairspray Method

    Spray a film of hairspray, let it soak in for a couple of minutes, then clean off with a good paper towel or cotton rag. You can use just plain soap and water to clean any stickiness left over, or better yet use a shampoo & conditioner combo with water to clean the hairspray off and lubricate the board for next time.

    Toothpaste Method

    The toothpaste method appears to be the leading alternative way for removing dry erase marker. Use ordinary white toothpaste. It contains a very mild abrasive and is water soluble. Plus, it will leave your whiteboard minty fresh! This method will also remove permanent marker marks from most smooth, non-porous surfaces.

    Marks Off Dry Erase Board

    Muscle Cream (Ben-Gay)

    This is similar to the toothpaste method, and removes permanent marker stains with only a few medium pressure wipes. It's less abrasive than toothpaste, and the alcohol acts as a better cleaning agent.

    Lava Soap

    Lava Soap used with a damp cotton swab or washcloth works almost as well as toothpaste but requires a second cleaning for total erasure.

    Lava Soap

    Orange Goop

    A close runner up to Lava Soap and Cameo is Orange Goop, the hand cleaner sold at automotive stores around the country. Orange Goop contains a mild abrasive and should be used with care. Do a spot test first to make sure you don’t remove the shine.

    Cameo Kitchen Cleanser / Bar-keeper’s Friend

    Cameo, a gentle powdered cleanser intended for use on stainless steel sinks, contains a very fine abrasive, which will not mark or score surfaces. Bar-keeper’s Friend is a similar non-abrasive cleansing powder product. This worked for me, when Windex, ammonia, Oxy-Clean, and many other methods did not work.


    Peroxide easily cleans clogged inkjet heads, which use a similarly permanent ink. It does a fair job of removing dry erase marker.

    Oxy Clean

    Oxy Clean or any of the generic brands of this cleaner work almost as well as Peroxide. This powder should be made into a paste and then rubbed in a circular motion using a soft cloth. Rinse the residue away with water.

    Vinegar & Water

    Vinegar and Water is the undisputed champion for removing old dry erase marker.


    Ammonia does a great job when used on the correct type of dry erase ink. It does not work on the dry erase board, but rather on the type that uses liquid for erasure. Use extreme caution with this chemical, which can irritate the lungs or other mucous membranes.

    Old Dryer Sheets

    Use old dryer sheets on older formulations of dry erase markers. The rough surface and the softener left in the sheet are what’s responsible for removing the marks. New dryer sheets will not work.

    Car Wax Method

    Use ordinary car wax. Simply use the applicator in circular motions and wipe off with a clean cloth. This will remove very stubborn stains and leaves your white board like it was the day you bought it!

    Neutral Shoe Polish Method

    Apply neutral (no color) shoe polish to clean, and buff with a clean cloth. It works wonderfully and provides a smooth like-new surface.

    There you have it. You should have a clean white board on your Visual Edge Slant Board by now. Congratulations on the effort well done and go out there and create something.

    Visual Edge Slant Board Front Yellow

  • How Vision Therapy Helps Patients With Eyesight and Comprehension

    How Vision Therapy Helps Patients With Eyesight and Comprehension

    Vision therapy is used to help people improve reading skills. It involves individual treatment to train a person's eyes to respond better to certain cues. When the eyes are more efficient, visual acuity and performance are improved. With improved vision, people can read more easily without getting tired and experiencing eye strain. They also have less difficulty processing what they are reading.

    Detecting Problems

    Those with visual and cognitive dysfunction are often unaware of their disabilities or their ability to improve uncomfortable symptoms. For example, they may simply avoid reading, working on a computer or writing because it is an unpleasant activity. Once the problem is discovered and diagnosed by an optometrist, the individual can receive treatment and therapy. These problems may be diagnosed through a routine eye exam or through school programs designed to detect students with reading disabilities or visual processing difficulties.

    Improving  Visual Functions

    When people have problems with their eyesight or mental processing functions, they may have difficulty reading the page of a book or understanding what is on a computer screen. With therapy, improved visual skills can reduce eye strain and headaches, as well as improve concentration and comprehension. Once the eyes are trained through therapy to work at the optimal visual angle, it will eventually become a habit.

    Vision Board

    When learning how to improve visual skills, some vision therapy patients use slant boards to help them overcome problems and improve reading skills. A specially designed vision board sits at a 22-degree angle for the most effective reading position. It features collapsible legs or a wedge-shaped lap pillow to help the patient find the correct angle for reading


    Optometric vision therapy is used to treat disorders and dysfunctions of the eyes and brain. While these problems may stem from birth, chronic disease or injury, the use of corrective lenses and visual training helps children and adults alike to improve reading and comprehension skills. Therapy can help patients with problems such as astigmatism, nearsightedness, farsightedness and double vision, among others. When these problems are diagnosed and treated, the patient's experiences will improve reading and comprehension significantly. When these problems remain undiagnosed and untreated, the difficulties experienced can become worse.

    There are many causes and symptoms involved with visual problems and reading comprehension. While some of them are a result of natural occurrences and chronic disease, they can also be the result of injuries due to accidents or surgery. When these symptoms and difficulties are diagnosed and treated, the patient can learn to improve eyesight and comprehension for a higher quality of life.

  • Creating The Ultimate Ergonomic Workstartion: Encourage Proper Form for Students

    Ergonomic Workstations Encourage Proper Form for Students

    Proper ergonomics affect reading, writing and comprehension skills. These skills, in turn, affect the ability to improve reading and participate well in school. One way that students can improve their learning skills is to improve their ergonomics. While sitting slouched or curled up on the floor or on a soft sofa or chair may be more comfortable for kids while they are watching television and playing games, learning proper posture and sitting in an ergonomic angle will help them feel better and learn better in the long run while at school or doing homework.

    Visual Edge Slant Board Blue

    Ergonomic Positions

    Using ergonomic designs helps students maintain a position that optimizes comfort, lowers fatigue and maximizes productivity. By improving posture, students can reduce eye fatigue and raise reading comprehension. They should be seated in a comfortable chair with the desk, work surface or book at a 22-degree angle, the optimal angle for writing and reading. It helps the neck, back, eyes and wrists retain the proper positioning.

    Physical Improvements

    Ergonomic WorkstationStudents who sit in proper ergonomic positioning will have better physical reactions, such as a reduction in wrist cramping, back pain and heart rate, as well as lower blood pressure. Sitting at the proper angle reduces eye strain and fatigue, which in turn reduces the occurrence of headaches. When children are more comfortable, they are less distracted, retain information more readily and learn better overall.


    Having an ergonomically correct workstation helps children improve reading and comprehension skills. Whether they are using books, laptops or a dry erase surface, an angle of 22 degrees is the most ergonomically correct position. Dry erase and magnetic writing board surfaces give students a fun surface to use that is environmentally-friendly and visually appealing. When these boards are used in school for workstations or at home for studying, students can maintain ergonomically correct posture while learning effectively. Slant boards at students' workstations help them to have a designated learning area, as well as remind them to use proper posture. When practiced often enough, it will become a habit.

    Learning Activities

    One way for children to improve their learning skills is for them to enjoy what they are doing. Games, activities and fun puzzles can help them to train their brains in reasoning and comprehension. Using slant boards for writing, problem solving and reading will help them to become more effective learners. These skills will stay with them through adulthood, helping them to develop into better educated and more productive adults.

  • What is Vision Training?

    Optometric visual training or vision therapy, is the part of optometric care devoted to developing, improving and enhancing people's visual performance.

    Over several decades, behavioral optometrists have developed and used visual training in combination with appropriate, judiciously selected lenses to:

    • Prevent vision and eye problems from developing
    • Develop the visual skills needed to achieve more effectively at school, work or play
    • Enhance functioning on tasks demanding sustained visual effort
    • Re-mediate or compensate for vision and eye problems which have already developed

    Through visual training, people are able to develop more efficient visual performance.

    Vision: A Set of Abilities

    Nearly all humans are born with the potential for good eyesight, but vision‐‐the ability to identify, interpret and understand what is seen ‐‐is learned and developed, starting from birth.

    In learning to walk, a child begins by creeping, crawling, standing, walking with assistance, and finally, walking unaided. A similar process from gross to fine motor control takes place in the development of vision.

    One visual skill builds on another, step‐by‐step as we grow. But many people miss a step, or do not complete a step, or must begin to perform school or other visually demanding tasks before an acceptable foundation of basic visual skills is in place.

    Science indicates that we do not “see” with our eyes or our brain; rather, vision is the reception and processing of visual information by the total person. Since two‐thirds of all information we receive is visual, it becomes clear that efficient visual  skills are a critical part of learning, working and even recreation. Athletes, for example performance in their sport.

    Developing visual skills includes learning to use both eyes together effectively. Having both eyes move, align, fixate and focus as a team enhances your ability to interpret and understand the potential visual information that is available to you.

    Intelligent persons who are very highly motivated can be good achievers, even with very poor visual skills and abilities, but at untold cost iii wasted energy and unnecessary effort and stress. For those who are less motivated, even one or two deficient visual skills can produce enough stress and frustration to create a non‐achiever.

    What Are the Visual Skills?

    Visual Skills

    The visual skills, which can be developed and enhanced through visual training, include:

    Tracking. The ability to follow a moving objects smoothly and accurately with both eyes, such as a ball in flight or moving vehicles in traffic.

    Fixation. The ability to quickly and accurately locate and inspect with both eyes a series of stationary objects, one after another, such as moving from word to word while reading.

    Focus Change. The ability to look quickly from hr to near and vice versa without momentary blur, such as looking from the chalkboard to a book or from the dashboard to cars on the street.

    Depth Perception. The ability to judge relative distances of objects and to see and move accurately in three‐dimensional space, such as when hitting a ball or parking a car.

    Peripheral Vision. The ability to monitor and interpret what is happening around you while you are attending to a specific central visual task; the ability to use visual information perceived from over a large area.

    Binocularity. The ability to use both eyes together, smoothly equally, simultaneously and accurately.

    Maintaining Attention. The ability to keep doing any particular skill or activity with ease and without interfering with the performance of other skills.

    Near Vision Acuity. The ability to clearly see, inspect, identify and understand objects at near distances, within arm’ length.

    Distance Acuity. The ability to clearly see inspects, identify and understand objects at a distance. People with 20/20 distance sight still may have visual problems.

    Visualization. The ability to form mental images in your “mind's eye," retain or store them for future recall, or for synthesis into new mental images beyond your current or past direct experiences.

    Visual Skills/Visual Stress

    If a person's visual skills are not adequately developed, or a person fails to coordinate vision with other senses, vision problems may occur. With poor binocularity, for example, one eye may locate an object in one place while the other eye locates it in another. The confusing signals may result in:

    Headaches: Especially near the eyes or forehead, or occasionally at the back of the head.

    Double Vision: Two objects are seen when only one exists.

    Reduced Performance: Losing your place while reading, rereading words or lines, difficulty with Understanding or recalling what you've read, reading slowly.

    Discomfort/Fatigue:  Body tension, stress or pain; weariness at the end of a school or workday.

    Suppression:  Information from one eye may be blocked or ignored to avoid seeing double. If the visual problem is not corrected, it may get worse.

    Near point visual stress, the result of sustained visual activities done at less than arm's length, may produce most of the problems listed above.

    There are many other common eye and visual problems, which can limit the way you live and enjoy life. These include:

    Nearsightedness. Myopia‐seeing more easily at near than at distances.

    Farsightedness. Hyperopia a‐seeing more easily at distances than at near.

    Strabismus. Crossed eyes.

    Amblyopia. Lowered visual acuity (clarity), not correctable to normal acuity with lenses.

    Astigmatism. Distorted vision‐interferes with seeing clearly at any distance without effort.

    Poor Vision‐Body Movement Coordination. Clumsiness, awkwardness, inefficient eye‐hand or eye‐ body coordination, poor handwriting.

    Visual training, usually combined with appropriate lenses, may remedy, improve or prevent any of these conditions in both children and adults. Visual training and lenses are intended to alleviate the symptoms and eliminate the underlying cause inadequate visual skills and visual stress.

    Studies show that success in visual training depends on an appropriate program prescribed by your optometrist, and on an individual patient's cooperation, participation and motivation.

    Beyond Visual Performance

    Visual training also has proven to be a remarkably effective tool in helping' people with learning‐related visual problems. Many problems in learning to read and write are made worse by poorly developed visual skills.

    Dozens of experimental programs involving thousands of children and adults demonstrate that when visual skills are enhanced through visual training, learning is easier, reading levels rise, and in some cases, IQ scores have increased.

    Building visual skills also increases the ability to visualize, conceptualize and to create. Dr. Johan Pestalozzi, a Swiss educated reformer, notes that “conceptual thinking is built on visual understanding “ visual understandings the basis of all knowledge.

    Vision Training

    What is a Behavioral Optometrist?

    Behavioral optometrists spend years in post‐graduate, continuing education to master the complex visual programs prescribed to prevent or eliminate visual problems and enhance visual performance.

    Not all optometrists practice behavioral optometry, which includes developmental and functional optometry. If you do not now have an optometrist who practices behavioral optometry, call or write the OEP Foundation. Or, make sure you receive a yes answer to each of the following questions before you make an appointment:

    • Do you make a full series of near point vision tests?
    • Do you make work‐ or school‐related visual perception tests?
    • Do you provide full vision care and visual training in your office, or will you refer me to a colleague if needed?
    • Will you see me again during the year, and periodically to determine my progress?

    Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.

    1921 E. Carnegie Ave., Ste. 3‐L

    Santa Ana, CA 92705‐5510

    (949) 250‐8070

    Pamphlet Copyright © 1995, OEP Foundation, Inc. ‐ A nonprofit foundation for education and research in Vision

    Permission to reprint the contents of this brochure granted to VISUAL EDGE, INC. ® ‐ 05/01/09 by: the Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.


    Optometric vision therapy is an individualized treatment program designed to improve visual function and performance. It is an approved treatment modality for disorders including, but not limited to:

    • Ocular motility dysfunction/eye movement disorders
    • Vergence dysfunction/inefficiency in using both eyes together
    • Strabismus/misalignment of the eyes
    • Amblyopia/lazy eye
    • Accommodative disorders/focusing problems
    • Visual information processing disorders
    • Visual sensory and motor integration

    Visual rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury or stroke all of which result in inefficient visual information processing.

    Most people who visit an optometrist know that any eye health problems will be detected and managed and that glasses or contact lenses will be prescribed if indicated. That picture is incomplete because there are visual conditions that are best managed by optometric vision therapy. This therapy enables an individual to learn more efficient ways to perform visually. It is an art and science of vision care that complements the prescription of eyeglasses, contact lenses and the treatment of eye disease.

    Optometric vision therapy, also referred to as visual training or orthoptics (CPT 92065), is an established, medically necessary therapy when prescribed by an optometrist. Optometric vision therapy can improve visual function much like physical therapy can improve general motor function. An optometrist to determine the presence of visual deficiencies administers clinical tests with associated normative values. If optometric vision therapy is indicated, the optometrist recommends a specific treatment plan.

    Optometric vision therapy typically invokes a programmed combination of office treatment and home therapy. Lenses, prisms, optical devices, and specially adapted computers are some of the devices through which one learns to use vision more effectively. The specific materials are less important than the feedback provided to the patient to enable change. Visual skills need to be developed until they become automatic and are subconsciously integrated with the other skills. The extent of success is also linked to patient compliance.

    The benefits of optometric vision therapy, which include improved visual information processing and the ability to sustain visual function over time, are as applicable to the child in the classroom as they are to the adult using a computer or reading a book. Without efficient visual skills the act of reading can be frustrating. Some of the common symptoms relieved through vision therapy include eyestrain, visually induced headaches, inability to concentrate when doing visual tasks, and errors such as loss of place or reversals. More often, individuals have no recognized symptoms due to their avoidance of visually demanding tasks or an adaptation that decreases their performance. Optometric vision therapy also facilitates appropriate visual development, and serves as a component of the multi‐disciplinary effort following stroke or head injury.

    Members of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) have post‐graduate education in the diagnosis and management of conditions for which optometric vision therapy is an appropriate treatment. Fellows of the College are certified in providing this vision care. For further information, contact COVD or consult with your COVD optometrist.

    Dedicated to the Enhancement of Vision

    Permission to reprint the contents of this C.O.V.D. White Paper granted to VISUAL EDGE, INC. ® ‐ 05/01/09 by:

    College of Optometrists in Vision Development

    243 N. Lindbergh Blvd. Ste 310

    St. Louis, MO 63141‐7851

    (314) 991‐4007 1‐888‐COVD770

    FAX (314) 991‐1167

  • What is Behavioral Optometry?

    How does your visual performance shape up against the demands placed on your visual system?

    • At work?
    • At home?
    • At school?
    • At play?

    You may not be aware of it, but your visual system brings you much information about your world. When you look at something, you don't just "see" with your eyes; you inspect, discriminate, identify and interpret ‐ all as a part of your visual system.

    Behavioral optometry is an expanded area of optometric practice. When you visit your behavioral optometrist, you may notice a difference in your examination. You will find that you are tested for specific visual skills. You may find that many of your questions about vision are answered. And you will receive the clinical guidance you need to develop the skills that provide for an efficient visual system.

    Why Behavioral Optometry?

    Our ancestors had hunter's eyes for survival in the wilderness; their vision was designed for spotting game and enemies at a distance.

    In the last 100 years we have been forced to deal with sustained, near visual tasks and the resulting stress on the visual system has produced many symptoms and problems.

    If you experience headaches, blurred vision, tired, itchy or watery eyes or other vision linked problems, you may already know how uncomfortable sustained visual stress can feel. Your discomfort may be related to the heavy vision load of working at near distances.

    If you are a student, you may read almost three times the number of textbooks your grandparents did. If you are employed in an office, you probably use your visual system for hours of close‐up work. If you work with computers, you may

    spend much of your day looking at a computer screen. These tasks can all contribute to visual stress.

    Even if you have "20/20 eyesight," you may have difficulty working at close tasks. The term "20/20" means you can see well at distances of 20 feet or more, it does not usually refer to how well you see at 12‐16 inches, the distance at which you do most of your close work.

    There is a solution.

    Your behavioral optometrist has studied the effects of stress on vision. Through the use of carefully selected stress‐relieving and preventive lenses and visual training, you can enjoy relief from even the most stressful close‐up visual conditions.

    More About Behavioral Optometrists

    • Your behavioral optometrist takes a holistic approach to vision care. You are treated as a whole person and your visual problem as a part of the whole system. Your behavioral optometrist works with you and your children, rather than doing something to you.
    • You and your children will receive help in developing the important visual skills you may need to reach academic and professional goals.
    • Even the visual achievement of successful learners and earners can be enhanced through behavioral optometric care.

    Who Needs a Behavioral Optometrist?

    Behavioral vision care is useful to virtually all patients. However, the following individuals will especially benefit:

    • Children of all ages, but especially children just starting school.
    • Children who are having trouble with reading or learning.
    • Children who seem to be uncoordinated in visually demanding sports.
    • Children who are considered "behavior problems"
    • Children who are reading "below their potential."
    • Anyone who participates in athletics and wants improved performance.
    • Anyone who works at a computer.
    • Anyone who has a visually demanding job.
    • Anyone who suffers from burning, itchy eyes, eyestrain or visual fatigue (with no medical eye problem).

    See your family optometrist annually.

    More Good News... If your behavioral optometrist prescribes visual training (also called vision therapy) for you, and even if your medical insurance does not cover eyeglass prescriptions, your major medical may cover visual training.

    Visual training often falls under the category of physical therapy. It usually involves a series of visits during which you perform specific activities to remediate your vision problem under the close supervision of a professional.

    The office staff can help you determine if your policy covers visual training and with their help, you can submit the proper claim and receive entitled benefits.

    What Is a Behavioral Optometrist?

    Behavioral optometrists spend years in post‐doctoral education to master the complex visual programs prescribed to prevent or to normalize ‐visual problems and enhance visual performance. Behavioral optometry is an umbrella term that also includes developmental and functional optometric practices. Not all optometrists practice behavioral optometry. To find one who does, call or write Optometric Extension Program Foundation Vision Extension. If you do not now visit a behavioral optometrist, call or write the OEP Foundation for a referral list in your area.

    Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.

    1921 E. Carnegie Ave., Ste. 3‐L

    Santa Ana, CA 92705‐5510

    (949) 250‐8070

    Pamphlet Copyright © 1984, OEP Foundation, Inc. ‐ A nonprofit foundation for education and research in Vision

    Permission to reprint the contents of this brochure granted to VISUAL EDGE, INC ® ‐ 05/01/09 by: the Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.

  • Symptoms of Reading Problems

    The following symptoms may indicate that YOU or your CHILD has reading problems along with writing difficulties.

    reading problem

    Physical Cues of Reading Problems

    ¨      Red, sore, or itching eyes

    ¨      Jerky eye movements, one eye turns in or out

    ¨      Squinting, eye rubbing, or excessive blinking

    ¨      Blurred or double vision

    ¨      Headaches, dizziness, or nausea after reading

    ¨      Head tilting, closing or blocking one eye when reading

    ¨      History of recurrent ear infections


    ¨      Avoidance of near work

    ¨      Frequent loss of place

    ¨      Omits, inserts, or rereads letters/words

    ¨      Confuses similar looking words

    ¨      Failure to recognize the same word in the next sentence

    ¨      Difficulty identifying sounds in words and recognizing rhyming words (phonological awareness skills)


    ¨      Smart in everything but school

    ¨      Low self-esteem, poor self image

    ¨      Temper flare-ups, aggressiveness

    ¨      Frequent crying

    ¨      Short attention span

    ¨      Irritability

    ¨      Day dreaming

    ¨      A history of speech or language delay

    ¨      Family history of  literacy learning problems

    ¨      Muddling sounds in words eg ‘hostipal’ for ‘hospital’

    ¨      Enjoys being read to but no interest in looking at the words


    ¨      Lazy

    ¨      Dyslexic

    ¨      Attention deficit disorder

    ¨      Slow learner

    ¨      Behavioral problem

    ¨      Juvenile delinquent

    ¨      Working below potential

    ¨      Has no interest in being read to (may be described as an ‘outdoor kid’)


  • How To Reduce Stress Through Visual Hygiene To Better Reading

    Because there is an intimate relationship between posture, working distance, desk surface the pioneering experiments by Dr. Darrel Boyd Harmon and subsequent research by Dr. John Pierce and Dr. Steven Greenspan clearly prove a reduction of stress and improved performance when conditions are arranged properly for near-point visual activities such as reading and writing. The following changes were observed: reduced heart rate, more regular and deeper breathing, and reduced neck muscle and overall body tension. Improve your reading abilities today!


    Working Surface: A sloping working surface must be used that is tilted between 20 and 23 degrees from the horizontal.  The Visual Edge Slant Board is at 22 degrees, which has been found to be the optimum angle.

    Posture: Seated comfortably, relatively erect, feet flat on floor or box.

    Working Distance: The "Harmon Distance" is the optimal distance from the eyes to the working surface. It is the distance from the elbow to the first knuckle. This can only be assured with a proper chair height to desk relationship.

    Near point Lenses: ONLY IF PRESCRIBED BY A DEVELOPMENTAL OPTOMETRIST. A specific, low power prescription not used to correct a defect in the eyes but to put the eyes into better balance for near tasks. This enhances and integrates the posture, working distance, and surface relationship.


    good posture




    1. Ensure your reading material is at an angle of between 20 and 23 degrees.  The Visual Edge Slant Board is at an angle of 22 degree which research has shown to be the optimum angle at which to read.

    2. Do all near point activity at HARMON distance or slightly further. This is the distance from the center of the middle knuckle to the center of the elbow measured on the outside of the arm. Working at the Harmon distance reduces near point visual stress.

    3. Be AWARE of space between self and the page when reading. Also, be aware of things around and beyond the book.

    4. When reading, occasionally look off at a specific distant object and LET its details come into focus. Maintain awareness of other objects and details surrounding it. Do this at least at the end of each page.

    5. When studying, place a bookmark 3 or 4 pages ahead. Get up and move around for at least one minute each time you reach the bookmark.

    6. Sit UPRIGHT. Practice holding your back arched while you read and write. Avoid reading while lying on your stomach on the floor. Avoid reading in bed while lying on your stomach on the floor. Avoid reading in bed, unless sitting reasonably upright.

    7. Provide for adequate general illumination, as well as good central illumination, at the near task. The illumination on the task should be about three times that of the surrounding background.  Avoid the use of florescent lighting.

    8. Do not sit any closer to TV than 6 to 8 feet, and be sure to sit upright. Maintain good posture.

    9. When riding in a vehicle, avoid reading and other near activity. Encourage looking at sights in the distance for interest and identification.

    10. Encourage outdoor play or sports activities that require seeing beyond arm's length.

    11. When outdoors, sight a distant object at about eye level. At the same time, be aware of where things are on all sides.

    12. Walk with head up, eyes wide open and look TOWARD, not at, objects.

    13. Become very conscious of the background of the objects you look TOWARD, be it a person, print on a page, an electric sign, the TV, or any other object.



  • How To Treat ADHD Naturally


    A Developmental Approach

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is being diagnosed with increasing frequency in both children and adults. Many of these individuals were previously labeled hyperactive or minimally brain damaged. It is estimated that over one million people presently have this disorder.


    The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical (Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, classifies three types of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive, and combined. Six of nine symptoms of inattention, and six of nine of hyperactivity and impulsivity are necessary for diagnosis.


    In each case, the symptoms must be present for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level. In addition, some symptoms must be present prior to age seven, and in two or more settings (e.g. at school, work and home). There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social academic or occupational functioning, and the impairment cannot be caused by other disorders such as anxiety, psychosis or a pervasive developmental disorder.


    Even though it is generally assumed that people diagnosed as having ADHD evidence a common set of characteristics emanating from a common etiology, little agreement is found among researchers regarding these symptoms. Some symptoms seen in children diagnosed as having attention deficits include:


    • Making careless mistakes in schoolwork
    • Difficulty sustaining attention to tasks
    • Not listening to what is being said
    • Difficulty organizing tasks and activities
    • Losing and misplacing belongings
    • Fidgeting and squirming in seat
    • Talking excessively
    • Interrupting or intruding on others
    • Difficulty playing quietly


    These symptoms are also seen in both children and adults with learning-related visual problems, sensory integration dysfunction as well as with undiagnosed allergies or sensitivities to something they eat, drink or breathe. The chart that follows illustrates this graphically.


    Physicians often recommend that ADHD be treated symptomatically with stimulant medication, special education and counseling. Although these approaches sometimes yield positive benefits, they may mask the problems rather than get to their underlying causes.


    In addition, many common drugs for ADD, which have the same Class 2 classification as cocaine and morphine, can have some negative side effects that relate to appetite, sleep and growth. Placing a normal student who has difficulty paying attention in a special class and counseling could undermine rather than boost his self-esteem.


    A sensible, multi-disciplinary, developmental approach treats underlying causes rather than the symptoms which are secondary.


    TREATMENT OF ALLERGIES to pollen, molds, dust, foods and/or chemicals by eliminating or neutralizing them has also been shown to alleviate the identical symptoms, and without side effects.


    VISION THERAPY improves skills that allow a person to pay attention. These skill areas include visual tracking, fixation, focus change, binocular fusion and visualization. When all of these are well developed, children and adults can sustain attention, read and write without careless errors, give meaning to what they hear and see, and rely less on movement to stay alert.


    OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY for children with sensory integration dysfunction enhances their ability to process lower level senses related to alertness, understanding movement, body position and touch. This allows them to pay more attention to the higher level senses of hearing and vision.


    The public needs to understand that some behavioral optometrists, physicians, educators, mental health professionals, occupational therapists and allergists are all addressing the same symptoms and behaviors. The difference is that medication, special education and counseling can mask these symptoms and behaviors, while vision therapy, occupational therapy and the treatment of allergies may alleviate the underlying causes and thus eliminate the symptoms long-term.


    When making a choice about treatment for attention deficits:


    • Consult a behavioral optometrist for a developmental vision evaluation
    • Have a child evaluated by an occupational therapist with expertise in sensory processing problems
    • Consult an allergist regarding possible reactions to foods or airborne particles


    Take a look at our slant board that improves reading abilities in children of all ages and even adults.



    American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-lV), 1994.


    Ayres, A. Jean, Sensory Integration and the Child, Western Psychological Services, 1979.


    Crook, William G., Solving the Puzzle of Your Hard-to-Raise Child, Professional Books, 1987.


    Gesell, Arnold, and Ilg., Frances L., Infant and Child of the Culture of Today, Harper) 1943.


    Goodman, Gay, Poillion, M. J., The Journal of Special Education, "ADD: Acronym for Any Dysfunction or Difficulty," Vol 26, No. 1, l992, pp. 37-56.


    Kavner, Richard S., Your Child `s Vision, Simon and Schuster, 1985.


    Rapp, Doris J., Is This Your Child?, Morrow, 1991.


    Schmidt, M.A., Smith, L.H., Sehnert, K.W., Beyond Antibiotics: Healthier Options for Families, North Atlantic Rooks, 1994.


    Smith, Lendon, Foods for Healthy Kids, Berkeley Books, 1981.



    Vision Therapy

    Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. (OEP Foundation)

    1921 E. Carnegie Ave., Ste. 3-L

    Santa Ana, CA 92705-5510

    (949) 250-8070


    College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD)

    215 West Garfield Road Suite 200

    Aurora, OH 44202

    (330) 995-0718, (888) 995-0719, FAX (330) 995-0719


    Occupational Therapy


    Sensory Integration International

    1602 Cabrillo Avenue

    Torrance, CA 90501

    (310) 320-9986


    American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

    4720 Montgomery Lane

    P.O. Box 31220

    Bethesda, MD 20824-1220

    (301) 652-2682


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